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清教徒的默想操练

1 Introduction to .Divine Meditations and Holy Contemplations,. in The Works of Richard Sibbes (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 2001), 184.
2 《海德堡要理问答》,第32, 45, 49, 64问。
3 Richard J. Foster, Celebration of Discipline (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1978), 14-15.
4 See bibliography attached.
5 对清教徒默想的研究很少。Louis Martz研究默想和诗词之间的密切关系,就巴斯特的默想观写过一篇批判性的章节 (The Poetry of Meditation [New Haven: Yale, 1954]). 卡夫曼(U. Milo Kaufmann)说明了清教徒默想对约翰本仁的《天路历程》的重要影响 (The Pilgrim’s Progress and Traditions in Puritan Meditation [New Haven: Yale, 1966]). Barbara Lewalski 让人更关注抗独具罗宗特色的默想所带来的贡献(Donne’s “Anniversaries” and the Poetry of Praise, the Creation of a Symbolic Mode [Princeton: University Press, 1973] and Protestant Poetics and the Seventeenth-Century Religious Lyric [Princeton: University Press, 1979]). Norman Grabo 有力地对 Martz关于在十七世纪中叶之前加尔文主义思想拦阻默想艺术的发展的观点进行了反击(The Art of Puritan Devotion,. Seventeenth-Century News 26, 1 [1968]:8). Frank Livingstone Huntley 也细致地把抗罗宗默想归类为哲学上是伯拉图式的,心理学上是奥古斯丁式的,神学上是保罗和加尔文式的,与之相对的是,罗马天主教的默想在亚里斯多德和托马斯主义的 (Bishop Joseph Hall and Protestant Meditation in  Seventeenth-Century England: A Study With the texts of The Art of Divine Meditations [1606] and Occasional Meditations [1633] [Binghamton, N.Y.: Center for Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies, 1981]). Simon Chan 对清教徒默想提出了让人耳目一新的历史评价,比以前审视的涵括了更大范围的文字内容,超越了文学观点之外(The Puritan Meditative Tradition, 1599-1691: A Study of Ascetical Piety. [Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge University, 1986]). 他论证说,在十七世纪后半段,清教徒默想沿着一个更讲方法论的方向不断发展。尚无一本审视清教徒默想神学性和实际性评介的书。
6 William Wilson, OT Word Studies (McLean, Va.: MacDonald Publishing Co., n.d.), 271.
7 参 诗Psalm 4:4; 77:10-12; 104:34; 119:16,48, 59, 78,97-99.
8 Heaven Taken by Storm (Morgan, Penn.: Soli Deo Gloria, 2000), 23. 其他清教徒所作的类似定义,可见 Richard Greenham, .Grave Covnsels and Godly Observations,. in The Works of the Reverend and Faithfvll Servant of Iesvs Christ M. Richard Greenham, ed. H. H. (London: Felix Kingston for Robert Dexter, 1599), 37; Thomas Hooker, The Application of Redemption: The Ninth and Tenth Books (London: Peter Cole, 1657), 210; Thomas White, A Method and Instructions for the Art of Divine Meditation with Instances of the several Kindes of Solemn Meditation (London: for Tho. Parkhurst, 1672), 13.
9 The Art of Divine Meditation (London: for Tho. Parkhurst, 1634), 26-28.
10 参见威斯敏斯德大要理问答,第154问.
11 Calamy, The Art of Divine Meditation, 6-10.
12 The Works of Thomas Manton (London: James Nisbet & Co., 1874), 17:267-68.
13 Huntley, Hall and Protestant Meditation, 73.
14 The Art of Divine Meditation, 14-15.
15 The Works of Thomas Manton, 17:267. Cf., .A gracious heart, like fire, turns all objects into fuel for meditation. (The Sermons of Thomas Watson [Ligonier, Penn.: Soli Deo Gloria, 1990], 247).
16 William Spurstowe, The Spiritual Chymist: or, Six Decads Of Divine Meditations (London: n.p., 1666); ThomasTaylor, Meditations from the Creatures (London, 1629); Edward Bury, The Husbandmans Companion: Containing One Hundred Occasional Meditations , Reflections, and Ejaculations, Especially Suited to Men of that
Employment. Directing them how they may be Heavenly-minded while about their Ordinary Calling (London: for Tho.Parkhurst, 1677); Henry Lukin, An Introduction to the Holy Scriptures (London, 1669).
17 Huntley, Hall and Protestant Meditation, 74.
18 (New Haven: Yale, 1966), 126. 卡夫曼引用强烈反对想像的胡克的话,“要保守我们的思想免于随风飘动和虚妄的想像,就是要我们的理解力完全专注于神佩得颂赞的真理,以此作为我们每日所定的食物。” (The Application of Redemption: The Ninth and Tenth Books, 232).
19 Cited in Kaufmann, 144-45.
20 Ibid., 150-251.
21 Peter Toon, Meditating as a Christian (London: Collins, 1991), 175-78; The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, trans. Anthony Mottola (New York: Doubleday & Co., 1964).
22 Huntley, Hall and Protestant Meditation, 44-54.
23 Cf. Peter Toon, From Mind to Heart: Christian Meditation Today (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987), 99-100.
24 The Art of Divine Meditation, 22-23; Works of Greenham, 38.
25 White, A Method and Instructions for the Art of Divine Meditation with Instances of the several Kindes of Solemn Meditation (London: for Tho. Parkhurst, 1672), 17-20.
26 The Works of Thomas Manton, 17:268.
27 Christian Directions, shewing How to walk with God All the Day long (London: R. Ibbitson and M. Wright, 1661), 65.
28 The Saints’ Everlasting Rest (Ross-shire, Scotland: Christian Focus, 1998), 553. Cf. White, A Method and Instructions for the Art of Divine Meditation, 14.
29 Henry Scudder, The Christian Man’s Calling (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, n.d.), 103-104. Cf. The Works of William Bates (Harrisonburg, Va.: Sprinkle, 1990), 3:113-65.
30 Gleanings from Thomas Watson (Morgan, Penn.: Soli Deo Gloria, 1995), 106.
31 Sermons of Thomas Watson, 238.
32 The Works of Thomas Manton, 17:270.
33 Sermons of Thomas Watson, 238.
34 The Christian’s Daily Walk, 108.
35 The Saints ‘ Everlasting Rest, 549.
36 Sermons of Thomas Watson, 239.
37 The Works of Thomas Manton, 17:272.
38 Ibid., 271.
39 Sermons of Thomas Watson, 240.
40 A Method for Meditation: or, A Manuall of Divine Duties, fit for every Christians Practice (London: for Joseph
Nevill, 1656), 21.
41 The Art of Divine Meditation, 96-101.
42 The Works of William Bates (Harrisonburg, Va.: Sprinkle, 1990), 3:124-25.
43 The Saints’ Everlasting Rest, 555.
44 The Works of William Bates, 126-27. Thomas Watson makes the strongest case for morning meditations (Sermons of
Thomas Watson, 250-54).
45 See .Of the Sanctification of the Lord.s Day,. Directory for the Publique Worship of God.
46 Christian Directions, shewing How to walk with God All the Day long (London: R. Ibbitson and M. Wright, 1661), 66-67.
47 The Saints’ Everlasting Rest, 560.
48 Ibid., 561-63.
49 William Fenner, The Use and Benefit of Divine Meditation (London: for John Stafford, 1657), 10.
50 The Works of Thomas Manton, 17:298.
51 The Works of William Bates, 3:125.
52 The Works of Thomas Manton, 17:299.
53 Ussher, A Method for Meditation: or, A Manuall of Divine Duties, fit for every Christians Practice (London: for Joseph Nevill, 1656), 30-31; White, A Method and Instructions for the Art of Divine Meditation, 29.
54 Calamy, The Art of Divine Meditation, 173.
55 《海德堡要理问答》第58问/
56 A Method for Meditation, 32-33.
57 Bishop Joseph Hall and Protestant Meditation, 80-81.
58 The Works of William Bates, 136-39; Baxter, The Saints’ Everlasting Rest, 567-70.
59 Calamy, The Art of Divine Meditation, 172.
60 Ibid., 164-68.
61 The Works of George Swinnock (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1998), 2:417.
62 Calamy, The Art of Divine Meditation, 178-84. Cf. Gouge, Christian Directions, shewing How to walk with God All the Day long, 70-73.
63 The Works of Thomas Manton, 17:281.
64 Baxter, The Saints’ Everlasting Rest, 579-90.
65 Jonathan Edwards, Religious Affections (London: Banner of Truth Trust, 1959), 24.
66 A Help to True Happinesse (London, 1635).
67 The Works of William Bates, 3:145.
68 The Use and Benefit of Divine Meditation, 16-23.
69 Ussher, A Method for Meditation, 39.
70 The Works of William Bridge (Beaver Falls, Penn.: Soli Deo Gloria, 1989), 3:153.
71 Calamy, The Art of Divine Meditation, 108.
72 The Sermons of Thomas Watson, 269, 271.
73 A Method and Instructions for the Art of Divine Meditation, 53.
74 Ibid, 269.
75 The Works of the Reverend and Faithfvll Servant of Iesvs Christ M. Richard Greenham, 41.
76 The Art of Meditation (Jenkintown, Penn.: Sovereign Grace Publishers, 1972), 26-27.
77 Christian Directions, shewing How to walk with God All the Day long, 70.
78 A Method for Meditation, 43.
79 The Art of Meditation, 37-60. 因着它的详细,我没有在以上的列表中列举豪尔的列表。
80 The Saints’ Everlasting Rest, 702.
81 Toon, From Mind to Heart, 95-96. For how to meditate on heaven, see White, A Method and Instructions for the Art of Divine Meditation, 281-94; Baxter, The Saints’ Everlasting Rest, 620-52; The Select Works of Thomas Case, 1-232 (second book).
82 The Art of Divine Meditation, 4.
83 A Method for Meditation, 49.
84 The Saints’ Everlasting Rest, 549-50.
85 A Method and Instructions for the Art of Divine Meditation, 88.
86 The Art of Divine Meditation, 88-96. Cf. The Works of Thomas Manton, 17:288-97.
87 .Meditation on the Holy Sacrament of the Lord.s Last Supper,. in The Whole Works of the Right Rev. Edward Reynolds (Morgan, Penn.: Soli Deo Gloria, 1999), 3:1-172.
88 The Works of John Owen, 9:558-63.
89参 威斯敏斯德大要理问答,第171, 174, 175问。
90 Solitude Improved by Divine Meditation (Morgan, Penn.: Soli Deo Gloria, 1995), 280-321.
91 Calamy, The Art of Divine Meditation, 40-42.
92 The Sermons of Thomas Watson, 256.
93 The Whole Works of the Rev. W. Bates, 3:131.
94 The Use and Benefit of Divine Meditation, 3.
95 The Application of Redemption, 217.
96 The Whole Works of the Rev. W. Bates, 3:135.
97 The Works of the Rev. William Bridge, 3:133.
98 Cf. The Whole Works of the Rev. Oliver Heywood, 2:276-81.
99 The Works of the Rev. Thomas Brooks, 1:8,291.
100 The Works of Thomas Manton, 6:145.
101 Ibid., 17:283.
102 The Whole Works of the Rev. W. Bates, 3:122-23.
103 The Works of Thomas Manton, 17:285. Cf. Hooker, The Application of Redemption, 230-40.
104 Calamy, The Art of Divine Meditation, 28-40.
105 The Saints’ Everlasting Rest, 549.
106 The Works of William Bridge, 3:125
107 A Collection of Sermons and Treatises (London, 1636), 69-70.
108 The Works of Thomas Manton, 7:480.
109 Ibid., 6:145.
110 Calamy, The Art of Divine Meditation, 58-75.
111 Edmond Smith, A Tree by a Stream: Unlock the Secrets of Active Meditation (Ross-shire, Scotland: Christian Focus, 1995), 36.
112 Solitude Improved by Divine Meditation, 33.
113 The Sermons of Thomas Watson, 241-43.

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